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Bisphenol S induced epigenetic and transcriptional changes in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7*
a State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, PR China
b Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, PR China
Gene expression profiling
Breast cancer cell
In recent years, concerns about using Bisphenol A (BPA) in daily consume products and its effects in many chronic human diseases have prompted the removal of BPA. However, the widely used BPA al-ternatives, including Bisphenol S (BPS), have a high structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that they may have similar biological effects towards human beings. Indeed, BPS was also found to have endocrine-disrupting effects. Epigenetic mechanism was reported to be involved in BPA-induced biological effects in both in vitro and in vivo models. However, there is no assessment on whether BPS could cause epigenetic changes. In this work, we investigated the possible epigenetic effects of BPS that might induce in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. We found that BPS could change DNA methylation level of transposons. Besides, methylation status in promoter of breast cancer related genes CDH1, SFN, TNFRSF10C were also changed, which implied that BPS might play a role in the development of breast cancer. Gene expression profiling showed that some genes related to breast cancer progression were upregulated, including THBS4, PPARGC1A, CREB5, COL5A3. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed the significantly changes in PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and extracellular matrix, which were related to the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. These results illustrated that BPS exposure might play roles in the progression of breast cancer.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals pro-duced worldwide and was widely used in manufacturing plastic polycarbonate (PC) and epoxy resins (Olea et al., 1996; Vandenberg et al., 2009). It has been reported that BPA can cause potential health effects in human, leading to chronic diseases like diabetes, obesity, reproductive disorders, cardiovascular disease, birth de-fects, behavior disorder, chronic respiratory disease, chronic kidney disease and breast cancer (Rezg et al., 2014). The effects have raised concerns and prompted the searching for alternative chemicals. Bisphenol S (BPS) is one of the chemicals used to replace the toxic BPA (Liao et al., 2012a,b,c).
As a result, the use of BPS has been growing in recent years without restriction. Currently, BPS is considered as a ubiquitous