br Individualized nursing care is
Individualized nursing care is planned care that aims to meet the particular needs that each patient has across the disease continuum (i.e.
∗ Corresponding author. Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus. E-mail address: [email protected] (A. Charalambous).
as these might change over time), regardless the routine applied to other patients with a similar disease (Charalambous et al., 2017). Thus, individualized nursing care is patient- and family-centered, which means that decision making and delivery processes are based on the concept that both the patients and their EIPA constitute integral components and prerequisites for quality healthcare (Hughes, 2011). In order to provide individualized nursing care, healthcare providers have to develop an individualized healthcare plan, through co-operation and exchange of opinions with the patient and the specialists (i.e. multi-disciplinary and multi-professional approach) that treat them, re-garding the best possible method for treatment and care. In this way, the patient's needs may be identified and plans to satisfy them may be articulated (Coyle, 2014; Shuman et al., 2013; Wiegand and Russo, 2013). Moreover, healthcare providers ought to be competent, skillful and committed to provide with empathy the best healthcare, which meets the patient's particular needs, satisfies their preferences and constitutes best evidence-based practice (Beck et al., 2016).
M. Kousoulou, et al.
Despite the conceptual challenges at hand, there are two definitions that seem to reflect the essential elements of quality nursing care within the oncology context. Thus, according to Radwin (2000), quality of oncology nursing care is the extent to which patients diagnosed with cancer believe that the nursing care they receive reaches excellence. Secondly, according to Charalambous et al. (2008, 2009) quality of oncology nursing care can be defined in terms of the following six constituent characteristics:
Being valued during oncology nursing care, while the treatment policy ought to be based on equity and eﬀective resource manage-ment.
Being respected by being informed about health-related issues and choices, being involved in decision making and developing a part-nership with nurses.
Being cared for by communicative and supportive nurses that help the patient manage stress and uncertainty, clarify complex in-formation and take the appropriate decisions, even when they are life-altering.
Being confirmed by being treated by clinically competent and knowledgeable nurses that provide skillful care that promotes the feeling of being safe.
Being cared for religiously and spiritually in order to achieve holistic care.
Having a sense of belonging in terms of having support and care by the family, which may support and assist patients to deal with the disease and its concequences.
When the above elements are present, then End labeling may be assumed that there is quality oncology nursing care (Charalambous et al., 2009; Köberich and Farin, 2015). Often healthcare providers though empha-size survival over quality of nursing care, at the expense of the patient's well-being and their satisfaction from the healthcare services (Suhonen et al., 2018). However, the evaluation of a person's quality of life is a subjective process. Thus, when healthcare providers choose a particular treatment for patients diagnosed with cancer, the views of the parti-cular patient regarding their perception of quality care should be taken into consideration (Charalambous et al., 2016). Awareness on the needs of patients diagnosed with cancer is perceived to be an equally im-portant factor to survival prognosis when deciding the appropriate treatment. In fact, having quality nursing care and treatment for cancer is a fundamental right of patients diagnosed with cancer (Adam et al., 2017; Ferrell et al., 2013).
It has to be noted though that, based on a research by Adam et al. (2017) with 596 patients diagnosed with cancer from four European countries (i.e. Cyprus, Finland, Greece and Sweden), patients' percep-tions of quality may diﬀered across the participating countries. Hence, it is important to assess the provision of individualized nursing care and quality of oncology nursing care based on the patients' views from diﬀerent countries, especially in European countries where cross-border care is prevalent. On a National level, this is of particular importance for Cyprus, for which limited data regarding the patients' views were found. Thus, through research, useful data for nurses may be gathered that may guide them towards the design of eﬀective care plans for patients diagnosed with cancer. In addition, more awareness among nurses regarding the needs of patients diagnosed with cancer is ex-pected to be fostered, leading to quality individualized nursing care of patients diagnosed with cancer (Fessele et al., 2012). Finally, although individualized and quality nursing care are advocated as fundamental aspects of a patient's care, there is scarce and systematic evidence on what the associations are between these concepts (Suhonen et al., 2018).